I suggest you to keep a track of your periods so that you can take prophylactic measures in advance. Take ibuprofen for pain and cramps during periods. You can also try warm compresses, warm water bath and warm pad. Avoid unhealthy diet – excess sugar, salt, caffeine and alcohol. Do regular exercise, keep yourself well-hydrated and eat a healthy diet. Read more about the measures to control pain during periods or visit the best gynaecologist Hospital in Hyderabad.

A PAP smear is an internal exam. It is better to approach the best gynaecologist hospital in Hyderabad and meet a gynaecologist to know more about this test and when and why it is done. Experts recommend screening for cervical cancer – which is mostly a PAP smear that begins after age 21 years old. Those who have missed PAP smear or screening test for cervical cancer should discuss the potential risk factors for cervical cancer with their gynaecologist.

All girls, young and elderly women should pay attention to their private parts. Up on noticing anything unpleasant – any unusual odour – yeasty or fishy or foul odour, it is better to see a gynaecologist to rule out any bacterial or fungal infections. Smoking, caffeine, alcohol and some food items like garlic, onions and red meat are responsible for creating bad odour in the vagina. Read more about Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) – which is the most common cause of bad vaginal odour.
You should avoid fish that contains Mercury – mackerel, tile fish and also avoid processed foods. Also avoid all types of beverages – energy drinks, saccharine rich sodas and soft drinks, alcohol and unpasteurized cheeses.
The most effective and most successful procedure is abdominal Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. By this procedure, vaginal vault prolapse (prolapse that develops at the top of the vagina) after hysterectomy can be successfully treated.

Women age about 40 years and older should fix an appointment with their lady gynaecologist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer to discuss being screened for breast cancer. It is preferable to get screened every two years depending on the risk factors you have. A mammogram is the best screening test for breast cancer screening.

A menstrual cup is an eco-friendly alternative to pads and tampons. It is a small, flexible, funnel shape cup made of latex rubber or silicone. Unlike regular pads, it doesn’t absorb menstrual blood rather it collects it.

The benefit with a menstrual cup is that it can hold more blood than other methods and it can be used for up to 12 hours or more (it give overnight protection). Both reusable and disposable menstrual cups are available.

In this Video, Dr. Rajeshwari Reddy is comprehensively explaining everything about Menstrual Cups in Detail and depth. Watch the video now!

Before using a menstrual cup, talk to your gynaecologist. You can find many brands of all sizes available in the market. You can wear a menstrual cup for 6 to 12 hours, depending on whether or not you have a heavy flow.

Wash your hands thoroughly. Apply water-based lubricant to the rim of the cup. Hold it with your hand and insert it into your vagina keeping the rim up. Once you insert the cup ensure that it sits below your cervix. Rotate the cup once it is inside the vagina to create an air-tight seal that stops the leak. A perfectly fitted cup doesn’t make you feel it. If you are still unsure about using a menstrual cup, then talk to your gynaecologist regarding how to use it. You can wash and clean the menstrual cup and reuse it again. Follow all the instructions about reusing a reusable menstrual cup and adopt them diligently.

It is an emergency contraceptive pill used to inhibit ovulation and prevent fertilization if the intercourse has taken place during the pre-ovulatory phase. I-Pill is effective in preventing the risk of pregnancy if taken within 72 hours of unprotected sex. Yes, it is safe for women aged between 25 – 45 and not recommended for teenagers. Those who are allergic to Levonorgestrel should not use it.

To Know more about iPill, watch this video. Dr. Rajeshwari Reddy Explaining the effects of iPill on Pregnancy, Periods, and on the body

Withdrawal bleeding is not the same as a monthly period or cycle, though it feels like menstrual bleeding. This happens in women who take hormonal birth control methods – such as a pill or patch. In these women, hormonal levels do not fluctuate much throughout the 28-day period and therefore, they don’t have to menstruate. But women who are on birth control pills feel uncomfortable if they continuously miss their periods. Therefore, specialists recommend the fourth week off. When hormonal birth control pills are stopped during the fourth week of use – then uterine lining softens and sheds causing some bleeding. This is not true bleeding – it is known as withdrawal bleeding.

Some of the most common symptoms of UTIs include blood in urine, burning sensation during urination, painful urination, bad odour in urine, milky or cloudy urine, obstruction in urine flow, less urine, frequent urge to urinate and lower abdominal pain.

Some women have back pain, lower abdominal pain, tiredness, pressure in bladder, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting. These symptoms are indicative of upper urinary tract infection.

HPV vaccine offers protection against both cervical and oral cancers in men and women. Some strains of HPV are linked to oral cancer.

A majority of the cervical cancers are associated with HPV infection. It can be effectively prevented from spreading with widespread immunization with the HPV vaccine.

The HPV vaccine can lower the risk of cervical cancer worldwide. The ideal age for HPV vaccine is 11 or 12 years for both boys and girls. It can also be given earlier. The vaccine’s response at a younger age is better. The vaccine is given in two doses six months apart.

A two-dose schedule is effective for children under 15 – but teens and adults who get vaccine later (age between 15 to 26 years) should get 3 doses of the vaccine.

Some adults above age 27 and more (around 35 to 45 years) who have not yet taken vaccination can also consider vaccination after talking to their doctor if they are at risk of new HPV infection and if they can get prospective benefits of vaccination.

Inj. Cervarix – Dosage 0, 1, 6 months

Inj. Gardasil – Dosage 0, 2, 6 months

PAP smear is a procedure that involves the collection of cervical cells from the cervix – the narrow end of the uterus and top of the vagina – for investigation. The cells are observed under a microscope to detect abnormal cancerous cells. Early detection of cervical cancer gives an immense potential of curing it effectively. PAP smear can also provide some essential insights regarding the cells – their behaviour and future possibilities of developing into cancerous cells.

PAP smear can prove an essential first-line defence against prospective cervical cancer by stopping the possible development of cervical cancer.

PAP Test or PAP smear is basically a screening test for cervical cancer. Your gynaecologist will decide when should you began this test and how often you should have it. Gynaecologists recommend beginning this test at age 21. The test should be repeated after every three years for women ages 21 to 65 years. For women at higher risk, gynaecologists recommend PAP smear more frequently irrespective of age.

Yes, you have to because the purpose or objective of HPV vaccine is not to replace PAP tests. These tests are effective, routine screening tests to screen cervical cancer. PAP test usually begins at age 21 – and it is considered as a potential screening tool of a woman’s preventive health care. It helps in the early detection of cervical cancer in women.

PMS is a set of physical, emotional and psychological symptoms that manifest after ovulation in women – and typically ends with the onset of menstruation. About 90% of women suffer from this condition at some point in their lifetime.

Typical physical symptoms include bloating, lower abdominal pain, acne flare-ups, breast tenderness, fatigue, joint or muscle pain, food cravings, constipation or diarrhoea headaches and changes in appetite; mood-related symptoms include mood swings, oversensitivity, crying, social withdrawal, poor concentration, insomnia, depression and irritability.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is another severe type of PMS disorder. It is associated with severe symptoms and occurs in a small number of women. Apart from typical physical symptoms, the other prominent symptoms include tension, anxiety, depression, anger and irritability.

Menopause is a natural biological process that marks the end of your menstrual periods. It is diagnosed when you have gone 12 months without a period. It can happen in your 40s or 50s or maybe around 50 plus age. It may also happen before this age. Though it is natural to have reached menopause, the symptoms associated with it can affect a woman physically and mentally making her feel low, emotionally disturbed and weak.

Typical Menopausal symptoms include changes in mood, sleep disturbances, hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, irregular periods, slowed metabolism and weight gain, loss of breast fullness, dry skin and thinning hair. Mostly many women experience irregular periods and hot flashes in the months or years leading up to menopause. This phase is called perimenopause. It can last anywhere from a few months to several years.

Some women (around 1 percent) may reach menopause before the age of 40. It is known as premature menopause or primary ovarian insufficiency.

Some women (around 5 percent) may reach menopause between the age of 40 and 45 years. This is known as early menopause.

Emergency contraception is a method to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. The common method is the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). These pills can be taken up to 120 hours (5 days) after having unprotected sex. However, this method is more effective the sooner it is used after sexual intercourse. Any girl or woman of reproductive age can use emergency contraception to avoid unwanted pregnancy.

The 4 methods of emergency contraception as per WHO are:

  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs) containing UPA (ulipristal acetate)
  • ECPs containing LNG (levonorgestrel (LNG))
  • Combined oral contraceptive pills
  • Copper-bearing intrauterine devices (IUD)

Copper Intrauterine Device (IUD) or Copper-T is a T- shaped device made of plastic and copper. Copper is coiled around a T-shaped plastic frame. The presence of copper within the uterus produces an inflammatory reaction that is toxic to eggs and sperms and thus prevents pregnancy. It is a long-term contraception or birth control method as it can prevent pregnancy for up to 10 years. Very effective birth control method with 99% efficiency. Copper-T is a nonhormonal IUD option. It can also be used as emergency contraception provided it is used within 120 hours or five days after unprotected sex.

Advantages of Copper-T

  • Remains in its place for up to ten years
  • Can be used while breastfeeding
  • It can be removed at any time
  • There are no side effects with its use
  • Can also be used for emergency contraception

Mirena is also an intrauterine T-shaped device (IUD) made of plastic frame. Doctors insert this device into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. This device releases progestin hormone. Mirena prevents pregnancy by making the cervix’s mucus lining thick. This helps in stopping sperms from moving towards eggs and thus prevents fertilization. It also partially suppresses ovulation by thinning the lining of the uterus. Mirena provides long-term birth control (contraception) benefits. This hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) prevents pregnancy for up to five years after insertion. In addition to these benefits, Mirena helps in relieving pain associated with endometriosis and severe menstrual pain and also decreases the risk of endometrial cancer and pelvic infection.

Owing to the non-contraceptive benefits that Mirena offers, it is prescribed for fibroids, anaemia, endometriosis, cramping pain with menstruation, heavy menstrual bleeding and for adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia. However, it is not suitable for everyone. It is always better to discuss with your gynaecologist to know when can you use it and what benefits it offers for your condition.

Vulvar pain syndrome or vulvodynia is pain with Itching, stinging or burning sensation in the area outside (in the vulva) of a woman’s genital. The pain can last for more than two to three months without any clear identifiable cause – such as a skin disorder or any sort of infection. The cause of vulvodynia is a bit unclear and it is suspected to be due to injury and inflammation of the nerves, genetic musculoskeletal and hormonal factors. Therefore, the cause could be an injury, neuropathic or hormonal.

Women who have this problem may also suffer from other conditions such as fibromyalgia, bladder pain, and other painful conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome. The risk factors may include anxiety and depression. The pain associated with vulvodynia can negatively impact a woman’s life as she may become prone to sexual dysfunction.


The perception of a baby’s movement is a strong indicator of the baby’s wellbeing.

Baby’s movement – wiggles, rolls, kicks that you feel vary throughout your pregnancy. The first movement as experienced by many women starts from 16 weeks, but the average is (18 to 22 weeks). By 24 weeks, almost all women feel their baby’s movement.

Fetal kick count – starting at 24 to 32 weeks. Count your baby’s movement for 2 hours. You should feel at least 10 movements (rolling, flutters, kicks, wiggles) in 2 hours. If you feel fewer movements then talk to your doctor. To count movement, lie down on the left side and start the count. It is better to count the movement during evening hours when the baby is active and also after some activity.

In the first 2 hours, if you have not felt 10 kicks, then wait for another few hours and count again. Even after trying a second time, if you do not feel 10 movements within 2 hours, then talk to your obstetrician.

Pelvic floor exercises or Kegel’s exercises help in reducing the risk of uterine and vaginal prolapse, incontinence, and also in recovering after childbirth. They also help in making your sexual life better. Women who have had recently given birth or had surgery should talk to their gynaecologist before starting any such exercises.

These exercises help in tightening pelvic floor muscles.

1st exercise – Sit comfortably and visualize the muscles that stop urine flow. Feel the muscles and tighten them as much as possible. Hold them for 5 to 6 seconds. When you squeeze the muscles, you should feel as though you are lifting them. Release the muscles and wait for a few seconds. Repeat this exercise 10 times several times a day.

Do the next set squeeze and release without holding and repeat this 10 to 20 times taking a break of 3 – 5 seconds. Repeat this exercise twice daily.

Bridge – Lie on the back and bend the knees. Ensure that your feet lie flat on the floor and your arms by your sides with the palms facing down. Feel the pelvic floor muscles and contract and then lift the buttocks – hold for 5 seconds. Relax the pelvic floor muscles and lower the buttocks to the ground. Do this in two to three sets with each set having 10 repetitions.

Another exercise is squats.

It is induced termination of pregnancy by a qualified gynaecologist. It is legally allowed in India under the following circumstances as per the MTP act 1971– when there is a possible risk to the foetus and the mother due to the continuation of the pregnancy. The Bill extended abortion till 24 weeks in cases where a Medical Board diagnoses substantial foetal abnormality. The Act (and the Bill) require abortion to be performed only by doctors with specialisation in gynaecology or obstetrics. Your gynaecologist and Obstetrician will decide which method is the best according to the stage and age of your pregnancy. It is also done if the pregnancy is a result of the failure of contraception or rape. However, MTP is not for everyone. It is taken into concern when a woman has certain medical conditions – such as lung disease, kidney disease, bleeding disorders and heart disease or uncontrolled seizures. If you have any concerns about MTP talk to your gynaecologist.

Doctors recommend semen analysis to detect the cause of man’s infertility – to know whether low sperm count is the cause behind infertility. The test is recommended with a panel of tests for infertility workup for a couple.

This is a test of a man’s semen and sperm intended to check the quantity and quality of sperms: sperms count, their shapes and motility and to detect the cause of man’s infertility. For men, this is the first test doctors recommend if the couple has trouble getting pregnant after having unprotected sex for one year. In more than 40 to 50% of infertility cases, low sperm count is the cause. Certain drugs, steroids, and supplements can affect sperm production, talk to your doctor if you take those before undergoing the test. It is recommended when a woman fails to conceive even after trying for one year. In a nutshell, semen analysis is recommended to check and confirm whether the male partner is infertile.

Gaining less than recommended weight during pregnancy can lead to delivering underweight or a baby who is too small. Such babies are at risk for illness, neurological, physiological, and developmental problems. Gaining more than the recommended weight during pregnancy can lead to delivering a large or overweight baby; the risks with such a baby involves childhood obesity, diabetes, and the complications associated with caesarean delivery. Therefore, pregnant women should gain weight in the following proportions: underweight women should gain 12-16 kg; average weight women should gain 10-12 kg and obese women should gain only 7-8 kg during pregnancy. Considering your unique body type and current weight status, follow the instructions of your gynecologist pertaining to the amount of weight you should gain.

Exercise or physical activity during pregnancy can help you stay fit and healthy. It also reduces, stress, fatigue, bloating, constipation, backaches and improves your posture, mood, strength, endurance, and stamina needed for labour and delivery. Walking is good, to begin with, and also low impact aerobics. 30 minutes is more moderate activity is recommended per day for most days of the week. Exercise is not recommended for pregnant women who have diabetes, asthma or heart disease or if they have a previous history of early labour, premature births, or miscarriages. Exercise may not be advisable if a woman has any other health issue related to their pregnancy – such as low placenta, spotting, bleeding, high blood pressure, and weak cervix. In any case, whether you are healthy or not you must talk to your obstetrician before starting any exercise program. The safest exercises during pregnancy include brisk walking, indoor cycling, and swimming. To learn more about comprehensive exercises during pregnancy, talk to your doctor. In a nutshell, exercise during pregnancy may help reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and having a C-section. It also helps in shortening labour.