Women experience menstrual abnormalities – irregular, prolonged or shortened menstrual cycles. Some women may experience absence of periods or irregular periods before reaching menopause or at the beginning of menopause. Some young girls experience absence of periods or irregular periods during their early years of puberty or after a few years after menarche (their first period). Some young girls don’t even have menstrual cycles at all. These problems are mostly related to the hormonal imbalances and disorders of the female reproductive system. The other issues associated with hormonal imbalances in women include formation of ovarian cysts, osteoporosis, weight gain, weight loss, ance, alopecia or hirsutism, abnormal lactation, unwanted infertility, PCOS, anorexia and diabetes. Painful periods or premenstrual syndrome (PMS) which is associated with mood swings, cyclic headaches are also caused by hormonal imbalances in women.
Gynaecological endocrinology is the subspeciality of gynaecology that deals with the diseases and disorders of the female endocrinal system – especially female sex organs and hormonal imbalances. Gynaecologists specializing in this domain diagnose and treat female hormonal disorders in connection with female gonad functions – and female sexual functions – mainly menstrual regulation and regulation of ovarian functions, infertility and other issues.
Endocrine system regulates the functions of hormones – owing to which, different types of hormones work synergistically in the body.
Endocrinal disorders of the female reproductive system cause
- Ovarian dysfunction
- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
- Hyper-androgenic conditions
- Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) – Hormone imbalances
- Ovarian Cysts
- Ovarian insufficiency
- Menstrual cycle disorder
- Eating Disorders or Anorexia
- Menstrual Irregularities[amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea and dysmenorrhea (Painful menstruation)]
- Hirsutism (excessive hair growth)
- Delayed Puberty
- Habitual miscarriage
Ovulation Disorders Associated with Infertility include the following:
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating and regulating ovulation each month. When the production of these hormones gets disrupted due to excess weight gain or weight loss, emotional stress or physical problems, low body weight – ovulation gets affected. Absent periods or irregular periods is the most common sign.
Excess prolactin Production: Hyperprolactinemia is a condition where in pituitary gland produces excess prolactin hormone. It is a pituitary gland abnormality. This hormone reduces estrogen production and cause infertility. There could also be another cause for this condition – for instance, medication side effect.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and prominent cause of infertility in women. It is associated with hirsutism (abnormal hair growth on the face, acne); obesity and insulin resistance. Hormonal imbalance is the main cause of the symptoms.
Primary ovarian insufficiency (Premature ovarian failure) – This is premature loss of ovarian function possibly due to an autoimmune cause or disorder. In this condition, there is a premature loss of eggs from the ovary (mostly due to genetic cause or drug therapy). Production of eggs and estrogen hampers in women.
Gynaecological endocrinologists have expertise in the diagnosis, treatment and management of menstrual disorders, PMS, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility related to hormonal imbalances, ovulation disorders and PCOS. They also take care of osteoporosis, pituitary disorders and diabetes in women.
Dr Rajeshwari provides initial physical examination, assessment, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment for a variety of hormonal and infertility problems associated with the female endocrine system. If a particular problem needs a referral to a specialist in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, then she refers the case to them.
Research in gynaecological endocrinology is gaining prominence as endometriosis, PCOS, Infertility, hormonal therapy and menopause are the burning issues of women. The research thus covers a broad spectrum of conditions including ovulation disorders, endometriosis and rare disorders (Turners syndrome) of female reproductive system. Newer diagnostic and therapeutic methods have emerged to diagnose and treat all types of hormonal disorders in women.